SUMMARY NFS problem on Solaris x86

From: Basavaraj K Veerappa (
Date: Wed Sep 17 1997 - 14:51:27 CDT

Hi ,
        Thanks for every one who has replied. I got 4 replies.
1) From bismark@alta.Jpl.Nasa.Gov.
        Force your x86 machine to do version 2 NFS.
        ( This worked for me )..
Other replies were from

        The other useful inputs were
        1) Some of the cheaper PC ethernet cards have trouble handling large packet sizes used by
        2) Some info from Adrian Cockcroft's SE toolkit (all values pertain to client rpc
nfsstat -c )
If ( (0.05 * calls ) <= timeout ) && badxid == 0,
Packets are not making it to or from the NFS server. Fix network hardware or
reduce the NFS packet size.
(the above condition was true for me with version 3 nfs ).


  Margarita Suarez <> suggests editing
  $OPENWINHOME/etc/keytables/US5.kt. There are two places where keys 119
  (CapsLock) and 76 (Control) should be swapped: the MODMAP section and the
  KEYSYMMAP section. The latter is most important, because that's where the
  "Pseudo-Lock" function (which controls the locking behaviour of the key) is

  Doug Hughes <Doug.Hughes@Eng.Auburn.EDU> suggests using xmodmap with
  the following:

        remove Lock = Caps_Lock
        remove Control = Control_L
        keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock
        keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L
        add Lock = Caps_Lock
        add Control = Control_L

Subject: 8.3) How do I use the keyboard and display when the console
                 is on ttya?

  This technique is usable only on SunOS 4.x:

  /dev/mouse and /dev/kbd are disabled when you use ttya or ttyb for
  a console. You need to make new ones, which you can use with xdm
  to support the keyboard and display while the console is on the
  serial port. Here's how:

  1. Make new special files corresponding to the "raw" kbd and mouse:
        mknod /dev/zs2 c 12 2 # The keyboard
        mknod /dev/zs3 c 12 3 # The mouse
     These are just serial ports and will need some "special treatment"
     in order to behave as /dev/kbd and /dev/mouse.

  2. Shutdown your machine and tell the monitor to use ttya (or ttyb)
        setenv input-device ttya
        setenv output-device ttya
     (or use the eeprom command to do this)

  3. Reset and reboot. /dev/fb, /dev/kbd and /dev/mouse are now useless.
     /dev/bwtwo0 (or whatever your framebuffer device is) works as a
     substitute for /dev/fb. Also /dev/ttya (or ttyb) is useless - if you
     have an entry in ttytab for it, comment it out.

  4. Modify the StartOW file in the xdm directory
     ($OPENWINHOME/lib/xdm) and add the following lines:
        FRAMEBUFFER=/dev/bwtwo0 # or whatever your framebuffer is
     This file is only used by xdm to control the local display (see
     the Xservers file). So setting these variables will not affect
     xdm running on any other foreign display (i.e. xterminal).

  5. Set the OPENWINHOME environment variable, then start xdm with the
     config option, for example in /etc/rc:
         OPENWINHOME=/usr/openwin; export OPENWINHOME
         if [ -f $OPENWINHOME/lib/xdm/xdm-config ]; then
           $OPENWINHOME/bin/xdm -config $OPENWINHOME/lib/xdm/xdm-config &
           echo "Starting XDM..."

     Thanks to "John D. Barlow" <> and
     David Moline <> for these instructions.

9. Sun models and OS Versions
Subject: 9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?

  SunOS 5.x = Solaris 2.x

  Sun2: SunOS 4.0.3 or earlier.
  Sun386i: SunOS 4.0, 4.0.1, 4.0.2 only.
  Sun3: SunOS 4.1.1 or earlier.
  4/100, 4/200 series: SunOS 3.2, SunOS 4.0 through 5.4
  4/300 series: SunOS 4.0.3 through 5.4
  4/400 series: SunOS 4.1PSR_A through 5.4
  600 models 120, 140: SunOS 4.1.2 or later.
  600 model 41, 51: SunOS 4.1.3 or later.
  SPARCstation 1, 1+, SLC, IPC: SunOS 4.0.3 or later.
  SPARCstation 2, ELC, IPX: SunOS 4.1.1 or later.
  SPARCstation 4: SunOS 4.1.4 or later.
  SPARCstation 5: SunOS 4.1.3_U1B or later.
  SPARCstation 10 models 20, 30, 40, 41, 51, 61, 71: SunOS 4.1.3 or later.
  SPARCstation 20 models 50, 51, 61, 71: SunOS 4.1.3_U1B or later.
  SPARCstation 20 model HS11, HS21, 151: SunOS 4.1.4 or later.
  SPARCclassic, SPARCstation LX: SunOS 4.1.3C or later.
  SPARCstation Voyager: Solaris 2.3 edition II or later.
  Ultra 1 model 140, 170: Solaris 2.5 or later.
  Ultra 1 model 170E: Solaris 2.5.1 or later.

  The following machines only run Solaris 2.x:
  SPARCserver 1000, 1000E, SPARCcenter 2000, 2000E, Voyager, all
  Ultra systems.

  The SX framebuffer on the SS10 and 20 is only supported under Solaris 2.x.

  SunOS 4.1.3 and later has been reported to run on multiprocessor SuperSPARC
  configurations of the SS10, SS20, and 600, but this configuration is not
  supported by Sun. Anyone who tries this is on their own. The (unofficial)
  word from inside Sun about whether or not it actually works is as follows:

        Little testing of the SuperSPARC MP configurations under 4.1.3
        have been done by Sun. What little was done showed that under
        heavy loads the system was prone to crash (What it really did was
        hang, so badly that even an L1-A would not work).
        We suspect, but do not know, that as the SuperSPARC chips get
        faster that the problems will manifest themselves more quickly.

  Caveat Emptor.

  SunOS 5.0 runs only on SS1,1+,2,SLC,IPC,ELC,IPX.

  While SunOS 5.x does run on the 4/100 and 4/200 systems, the FPU (if
  present) is disabled, and floating point is emulated in software. The
  latest version of SunOS 5.x (Solaris 2.x) that runs on the 4/100, 4/200,
  4/300, and 4/400 systems is 5.4 (Solaris 2.4).

  SunOS 5.3 (aka Solaris 2.3) is said to run on the SS5, but without support
  for the audio device. Solaris 2.3 Edition II, Solaris 2.3 Hardware 5/94,
  and later versions include audio support.

  Not all peripherals supported under SunOS 4.x are supported under SunOS
  5.x and vice versa. Check with Sun or the peripheral manufacturer.

  Explanatory note:

  In general, Solaris = SunOS + Open Windows.

  Solaris 1.0 = SunOS 4.1.1 + Open Windows 2.0
  Solaris 1.0.1 = SunOS 4.1.2 + Open Windows 2.0
  Solaris 1.1 = SunOS 4.1.3 + Open Windows 3.0
  Solaris 1.1C = SunOS 4.1.3C + Open Windows 3.0 (Classic/LX only)
  Solaris 1.1.1 = SunOS 4.1.3_U1 + Open Windows 3.0_U1
  Solaris 1.1.1revB = SunOS 4.1.3_U1revB + Open Windows 3.0_U1revB
  Solaris 1.1.2 = SunOS 4.1.4 + Open Windows 3.0 (?)
  Solaris 2.0 = SunOS 5.0 + Open Windows 3.0.1
  Solaris 2.1 = SunOS 5.1 + Open Windows 3.1
  Solaris 2.2 = SunOS 5.2 + Open Windows 3.2
  Solaris 2.3 = SunOS 5.3 + Open Windows 3.3
  Solaris 2.4 = SunOS 5.4 + Open Windows 3.4
  Solaris 2.5 = SunOS 5.5 + Open Windows 3.5
  Solaris 2.5.1 = SunOS 5.5.1 + Open Windows 3.5

Subject: 9.2) How can my program tell what model Sun it is running on?

  On older suns, the model type is encoded in the hostid. For
  suns with the "Openboot" prom (All sparcstations and the 600 series),
  /usr/etc/devinfo (SunOS 4.x) or /usr/sbin/prtconf (Solaris 2.x) will
  reveal the model type.

  "Suntype", written by John DiMarco ( is a shell
  script which does the appropriate thing on all suns. It is available
  for anonymous ftp from in /sun-managers/suntype

  Alternatively, grab Michael Cooper ('s "sysinfo"
  program, which provides all sorts of information about a given system,
  including how much machine type. sysinfo is available for anonymous ftp
  from in /pub/sysinfo.

Subject: 9.3) What MBUS CPU modules are available? How can I tell
                 what module(s) is/are in what model of SS10/SS20/SS600?

  Three sun models, the SS10, SS20 and the SparcServer 600 series, support
  Sun's MBUS. All these machines have two MBUS slots. Both modules must be
  of the same type.

  SuperSPARC/w cache modules of different speeds are said to work, as are
  three-processor systems (by combining a single and a dual module of the
  same type), but such configurations are not supported by Sun.

  Modules without external cache are not separately clocked, and run at the
  clock rate of the MBUS. Modules with external cache are separately clocked,
  and must run at a clock rate higher than that of the MBUS.

  The SS20 has a switchable 40/50MHz MBUS, the SS600 has a 40MHz mbus, and
  the SS10 has a switchable 33/36/40MHz MBUS.

  Warning: different module revisions may or may not work in different
  systems. Check the Sun part number. Further, newer modules may require
  that the machine have a sufficiently recent PROM revision to work.

  Module #CPUS Processor Clck Ex.Cache Comments
  ------- ------ ---------- ---- -------- -------------------------------
  RT601 2 RT601/CY601 40 64k Rev 8 required for SunOS 5.x
  SM20 1 SuperSPARC 33 - SS10 only
  SM21 1 SuperSPARC 33 1M Not sold by Sun
  SM30 1 SuperSPARC 36 - SS10 only
  SM40 1 SuperSPARC 40 - SS10 or SS600 only
  SM41 1 SuperSPARC 40.3 1M SS10 or SS600 only
  SM50 1 SuperSPARC 50 - SS20 only
  SM51 1 SuperSPARC 50 1M
  SM52 2 SuperSPARC 45 1M Announced, never sold.
  SM512(?) 2 SuperSPARC 50 1M Dbl-width: 1 SBUS + 1 MBUS slot
  SM61 1 SuperSPARC 60 1M
  SM61 1 SuperSPARC 60 2M SC2000 only
  SM71 1 SuperSPARC2 75 1M
  SM81 1 SuperSPARC2 85 1M SS1000 only
  SM81-2 1 SuperSPARC2 85 2M SC2000 only
  RTS55 1 HyperSPARC 55 256k Non-Sun, SS10 or SS600 only
  RTD55 2 HyperSPARC 55 256k Non-Sun, SS10 or SS600 only
  RTS66 1 HyperSPARC 66 256k Non-Sun
  RTD66 2 HyperSPARC 66 256k Non-Sun
  RTS72 1 HyperSPARC 72 256k Non-Sun
  RTD72 2 HyperSPARC 72 256k Non-Sun
  RTS90 1 HyperSPARC 90 256k Non-Sun
  RTD90 1 HyperSPARC 90 256k Non-Sun
  RTS100 1 HyperSPARC 100 256k Non-Sun
  RTD110 1 HyperSPARC 110 256k Non-Sun
  RTS110/1024 1 HyperSPARC 110 1M Non-Sun
  RTD110/1024 2 HyperSPARC 110 1M Non-Sun
  RTS125 1 HyperSPARC 125 256k Non-Sun
  RTD125 2 HyperSPARC 125 256k Non-Sun
  RTS125/512 1 HyperSPARC 125 512k Non-Sun
  RTD125/512 2 HyperSPARC 125 512k Non-Sun
  RTS125/1024 1 HyperSPARC 125 1M Non-Sun
  RTD125/1024 2 HyperSPARC 125 1M Non-Sun
  RTS133/512 1 HyperSPARC 133 512k Non-Sun
  RTD133/512 2 HyperSPARC 133 512k Non-Sun
  RTS142/1024 1 HyperSPARC 142 1M Non-Sun
  RTS150/512 1 HyperSPARC 150 512k
  RTS166/512 1 HyperSPARC 166 512k Non-Sun
  SMHS11 1 HyperSPARC 100 256k SS20 only
  SMHS12 2 HyperSPARC 100 256k Double-width: SS20 only
  SMHS21 1 HyperSPARC 125 256k SS20 only
  SM151 1 HyperSPARC 150 512k SS20 only

  Key to SS600/SS10/SS20 model numbers:

  RT601 (40Mhz SS2-class Ross) systems:
        Model "1n0", n=number of CPUs (2 or 4)
        Examples: 120, 140
  SuperSPARC systems:
        Model "sc", s=clock speed, c=MBs of external cache
        Examples: 20, 30, 40, 41, 50, 51, 61, 71
        Model "scn", s=clock speed, c=MBs of external cache (0 or 1),
                n=number of CPUs
        Examples: 402, 412, 502, 512, 612, 712
        Speeds: 2=33Mhz, 3=36MHz, 4=40MHz, 5=50MHz, 6=60Mhz, 7=75MHz
  HyperSPARC systems:
        Model "HSsn", s=clock speed, n=number of CPUs
        Speeds: 1=100Mhz, 2=125Mhz
        Examples: HS11, HS12, HS14, HS21, HS22
        Exception: SparcStation 151 is 1x150Mhz HyperSPARC, 152 is 2x150Mhz

10. Miscellaneous Software
Subject: 10.1) My rdump is failing with a "Protocol botched" message.
                 What do I do?

  The problem produces output like the following:

       DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Wed Jan 6 08:50:01 1993
       DUMP: Date of last level 0 dump: the epoch
       DUMP: Dumping /dev/rsd0a (/) to /dev/nrst8 on host foo
       DUMP: mapping (Pass I) [regular files]
       DUMP: mapping (Pass II) [directories]
       DUMP: estimated 8232 blocks (4.02MB) on 0.00 tape(s).
       DUMP: Protocol to remote tape server botched (in rmtgets).
      rdump: Lost connection to remote host.
       DUMP: Bad return code from dump: 1

  This occurs when something in .cshrc on the remote machine prints
  something to stdout or stderr (eg. stty, echo). The rdump command
  doesn't expect this, and chokes. Other commands which use the rsh
  protocol (eg. rdist, rtar) may also be affected.

  The way to get around this is to add the following line near the
  beginning of .cshrc, before any command that might send something
  to stdout or stderr:

  if ( ! $?prompt ) exit

  This causes .cshrc to exit when prompt isn't set, which distinguishes
  between remote commands (eg. rdump, rsh) where these variables are not
  set, and interactive sessions (eg. rlogin) where they are.

Subject: 10.2) My rpc.etherd keeps reporting "bad lnth" messages. Why?

  There is a bug in the ethernet driver for SunOS 4.x which causes short
  requests (eg arp, ICMP, loopback) sent by the host to be forwarded to
  rpc.etherd with incorrect padding. The message is harmless, and can be
  safely ignored.

Subject: 10.3) Various daemons report "unknown service" messages. Why?

  In SunOS 4.x, this is usually caused by a blank line in /etc/services or
  in the services map on the NIS server. Remove all blank lines from
  /etc/services, and the problem should be resolved.

Subject: 10.4) Solaris 2.x does not have a C compiler. Where can I get one?

  You can buy one from Sun and various third-party vendors.

  A very old version of GCC is available on the Sun Catalyst CD-WARE #3 CD-ROM
  under Cygnus. This version should only be used to compile a more recent
  version of GCC.

  Recent GCC binaries can be retrieved from the following FTP sites:

     This site is said to contain several programs/libraries for Solaris2.X.
     (i.e. gcc, emacs, gdb, libg++, gawk, diff, make, sed)

  Thanks to Kevin Inscoe <>

11. Miscellaneous Hardware
Subject: 11.1) How come my mouse occasionally doesn't work?

  If it is a mechanical mouse, it may need cleaning. The following assumes
  it is an optical mouse.

  You may have one of the bad mice that came with early SS-1 shipments.
  The LED on the underside of the mouse can fail. Request a replacement
  from Sun.

  Alternatively, you may have an old mouse. (Martin Achilli)

          Sun optical mice P/N 370-1170-01 have two LEDs on the underside.
          One is a normal red LED, the other is an infrared LED. Old mice
          (4+ years) can have trouble tracking horizontal motion. Cleaning
          the mouse pad with a solvent may improve things slightly but not
          completely. I have replaced the red LED on the mouse PCB for eight
          of my twelve optical mice and the problem has gone. All you need
          to do is purchase a red LED of the type than focus the beam, NOT
          the unfocused type that are normally found as indicator lights on
          equipment. Open the mouse and remove the PCB by unplugging the
          small black connector. Be careful with the two small spherical
          lenses which can fall out and easily be lost. Mark the PCB and one
          of the LED's leads to note the orientation, then desolder the LED
          marked L1. Pull out the leads from above and pull the LED out of
          the black plastic mounting. Be careful since the mounting is only
          glued to the PCB. Check for polarity before inserting the new LED,
          I noticed that for all the LEDs that I installed, the longer lead
          must go into the PCB hole close to the letters L1. First fold the
          LED leads like the ones of the one you are replacing, and then
          insert it into the mounting, solder the leads and close the mouse.
          After this, horizontal motion should be much smoother. Disclaimer:
          I will not take any responsibility for any failure or damage
          arising from the above procedure

  Thanks to Martin Achilli <>.

  Finally, the wire inside the mouse cable may be suffering from fatigue,
  usually where the cable is attached to the mouse. If you turn the mouse
  over, and wiggle the cable where it is attached to the mouse, and if you
  see the visibly lit LED flickering while you do this, this is your problem.

Subject: 11.2) How can I turn my Sun3 into an X-Terminal?

  You can simply replace the getty command for the console in /etc/ttytab
  with a command that starts up an X server. Alternatively, you can use
  Seth Robertson's Xkernel package. This is available via anonymous ftp
  from ( in /Xkernel. The package
  describes how to configure a minimal kernel that runs the X server and
  offloads all the clients onto another, hopefully more powerful host on
  the network. This is attractive to some sites that have a large
  investment in sun3 platforms, as moving most of the processing off the
  sun3 cpu makes it tolerable to use. The price of a used 3/50 is
  competitive with low-end X Terminals and you get a 19" monitor with an
  optical mouse. Some disadvantages are that 4.1.1 is supposed to be the
  last SunOS release on the sun3, and maintenance costs may be higher for
  sun3 hardware.

Subject: 11.3) How do I do hardware flow control on an ALM-2?

  Hardware flow control is only supported on the first four ports
  (0-3) of the ALM-2. The other ports do not support hardware flow
  control. So just use one of ports 0-3.

Subject: 11.4) How can I use a VGA monitor on my Sun?

  A simple adapter will connect a Sun to a VGA multi-sync monitor, providing
  the monitor (like most better monitors these days) will accept composite
  sync and operate in 1152x900 66 Hz (or whatever output your sun produces)
  mode. (Check the manufacturer's data sheets, usually on the Web.)

  Adapters are available from:

  Ultraspec Cables, Inc., Lakewood, NJ, USA
  (voice) (NA) 1-800-622-2537 (int'l) 1-908-901-0200
  (fax) (NA) 1-800-222-5337 (int'l) 1-908-901-0240
  The Sun -> VGA adapter is part number 1395

  Nudata (908-842-1161, fax 908-905-5708) part number DA1152

  Thanks to Randolph Fritz <> for the above.

  Bert N. Shure <> points out that Integrix sells a VGA SBUS
  framebuffer, the HD15, which permits ordinary VGA monitors to be used on
  Suns. Integrix also sells various SVGA framebuffers. For more
  information, consult

Subject: 11.5) Where can I find alternate pointing devices for my Sun?

  Bert N. Sure <> claims that Mousetrak makes an excellent
  line of pointing devices. The url is "".
  SunExpress ("") and Qualix
  ("") distribute them. Bert uses the top-of-the-line
  "Evolution" trackball, which has six user-definable buttons and a large
  ball which is manufactured by a billiard ball company in Belgium.

  For 3-D input, SunExpress ("") sells the
  SpaceBall 3003, in addition to the standard Sun "SunDials" product.

Subject: 11.6) How do I read Microsoft Word documents on my Sun?

  It may be possible to run Microsoft Word on your Sun, using WABI,
  SoftWindows, NTrigue, or some other Windows integration product.

  From a PC/Mac, you can print postscript output to a file, and view the
  postscript on the Sun using docviewer or ghostscript/ghostview.

  Rachel Polanskis <> suggests word2x by Duncan
  Simpson <>, which translates a Word 6.x document into
  text or LaTeX. She ported it to Solaris; it's available at

12. Networking
Subject: 12.1) Why do both my net interfaces have the same ethernet address?

  The Ethernet version 2.0 specification (November 1982) states:

          The physical address of each station is set by network
          management to a unique value associated with the station,
          and distinct from the address of any other station on any
          Ethernet. The setting of the station's physical address
          by network management allows multiple multiple data link
          controllers connected to a single station to respond to
          the same physical address.

  This doesn't normally constitute a problem because each interface will
  typically be on a different subnet. If, for some reason, different
  ethernet addresses are required on different interfaces (for example, to
  attach two interfaces to the same subnet), a new one may be assigned
  using the ifconfig command.

Subject: 12.2) How do I find out the hardware vendor from an ethernet address?

  The first three octets of a six-octet ethernet address typically uniquely
  identifies the hardware vendor of the particular network interface card.
  This is called the "Organizationally Unique Identifier" (OUI). OUI
  information, including the most recent list of public OUIs can be found at

  Note that it is possible that an unidentified OUI could be used, since
  vendors are not required to make their OUIs public, and many network
  interfaces, including Suns, can be configured to use a custom ethernet
  address, so there is no guarantee that the OUI will correctly identify
  the vendor.

13. Electronic Mail
Subject: 13.1) Where can I get a POP or IMAP server for my sun?

  The PINE email package comes with both a POP and an IMAP server. PINE
  can be found at An old, unmaintained
  Berkeley popd can be found at
  (not recommended), and Casper Dik's enhanced version for Solaris is found
  at A POP server can also be found as part
  of the Eudora ftp repository, at
  Finally, the CMU Cyrus IMAP server can be used. It can be found at

  If a commercial package is desired, Sun's new SIMS (Solstice Internet Mail
  Server) supports POP3 and IMAP4. See

14. Printing
Subject: 14.1) Is there a third-party source for SPARCprinter consumables?

  Yes, there is. The SPARCprinter is OEM'ed by Xerox, and uses the same
  consumables as the Xerox 4030 laserprinter. The appropriate part
  numbers are:

        Toner cartridge: 365-1124-01 Sun
                                6R281 Xerox

        Drum cartridge: 365-1125-01 Sun
                                13R32 Xerox

        Fuser Lubricant/oil: 370-1371-01 Sun
                                94E95090 Xerox

        Fuser wick: 811-1687 Sun (Sun Express)

  These parts are available from various resellers, for example:

        DCSI Corporation <>
        17903 194th Avenue NE
        Woodinville, WA 98072
        (206) 844-9500
        Fax (206) 844-9525

Subject: 14.2) How do I configure a non-postscript printer for postscript?

  If a ghostscript driver is available for that printer, you can use
  ghostscript to translate the postscript to something the printer can
  understand. To do this for SunOS, use the APSfilter package. APSfilter
  was posted to comp.sources.misc as part of volume 42, and is available
  from your favourite comp.sources.misc archive site (eg. If you
  are using Solaris, follow Alexander V. Panasyuk's instructions in

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.1.2 : Fri Sep 28 2001 - 23:12:03 CDT